In ancient times, north-western Rajasthan was not as rugged as it is today. Vast rivers like Saraswati and Drishdwati flowed through this region. Cultures such as Harappa, ‘Gray-Ware’, and Rangmahal flourished in these river valleys.
The excavations done here have revealed a developed city civilization five thousand years old, especially near Kalinga. The Gray-ware, Harappan, and Rangmahal cultures were spread over a large area of Rajasthan up to hundreds of kilometers south.
There is evidence that the region was divided into several small republics before the fourth century BCE. Two of these republics, Malwa and Sivi, were so powerful that they forced Alexander the Great to return from Punjab to Sindh. At that time, northern Bikaner had the right of a Yudhiyat, a republican warrior clan.
The Matsya mentioned in the Mahabharata ruled over a large part of eastern Rajasthan and Jaipur. Bairath, then called ‘Viratnagar’, was his capital, 80 km north of Jaipur.
The antiquity of the region can also be traced to the two inscriptions of Ashoka and the ruins of the fourth fifth-century Buddhist monastery.
Bharatpur, Dholpur, and Karauli were then part of the Sursen district, whose capital was Mathura. Many post-Mauryan sculptures and utensils have been found in excavations at the place called Noh in Bharatpur. It is known from the inscriptions that in the Kushan period and the post-Kushan third century, northern and central Rajasthan was a very rich region.
The ancient republics of Rajasthan(Marwari) restored and revived themselves and became part of the Malwa. The Republic of Malwa was quite autonomous and prosperous before the invasion of the Huns. Finally, in the sixth century, under the leadership of Toraman, the Hunas plundered the region and captured Malwa. But then Yashodharman defeated the Huns and the influence of the Gupta dynasty was restored in South-Eastern Rajasthan(Marwari).
In the seventh century, the old republics gradually began to establish themselves as independent states. Of these, Gurjratra was the main state of western Rajasthan under Mewar and Gurjars by Chittor Gubilas during the time of the Mauryas. Due to frequent foreign invasions, a mixed culture was developing here.
In the eyes of orthodox Hindus, something needed to be done to prevent this desecration. After the death of Harsha in 647, in the absence of any strong central power, many situations were handled locally. Under these compulsions, the caste system became even more rigid under the new local leadership.
Marwadi Medieval period
In the British era: Most of the tribals opposed the British power in Rajasthan(marwadi), in which the Bhil dominant tribe stood against the British government. The Marathas and Bhils continued to oppose the British government. To bring Bhilo under control, the British government held a meeting with the Bhil Sardar Vasava, the Maratha chief, and the Rajput chief, in which it was decided that the Bhils and Rajputs would be able to do farming without any restriction.
Unification of Rajasthan after India’s independence :
Rajasthan(marwadi) is an important province of India. It became a province of India on 30 March 1949, due to which the most powerful princely states of the then Rajputana got merged. The Jat king of Bharatpur even merged his princely state into Rajasthan.
The word Rajasthan(marwadi) means: ‘place of kings’ because here Ahir, Gurjars, Rajputs, Mauryas, Jats, etc. ruled earlier. The creation of Rajasthan was an important achievement in the constitutional-history of India.
After the declaration of independence of India by the British rulers, when the process of transfer of power started, it was felt that the independence of independent India and the merger of the then part of Rajputana into India could prove to be a daunting task.
With the declaration of independence of India, the leads of the princely states of Rajputana were vying to retain their power in the independent state, at that time, from the perspective of the current state of Rajasthan, a total of 19 native princely states in this territory of Rajputana, There were 3 bases and one Union Territory.
The name of the Union Territory was Ajmer Merwada which was directly under the center i.e. the English. Among them, except for the princely state of Ajmer, Merwada, the remaining princely states were ruled by the native king’s Maharajas.
The province of Ajmer-Merwada was occupied by the British rulers; Due to this, it would have come to independent India only, but the remaining 19 princely states were to be merged i.e. to form a province alliance called ‘Rajasthan’ after unification.
Due to the competition for power, it seemed like very difficult bcoz the rulers of these princely states were seeing the merge of their princely states into independent India as the second priority. Their demand was that they themselves have been governing their own states for years, He has long-term experience of this, so his state should be given the status of ‘independent state’.
The process of unification of Rajasthan(marwadi), which started on 18 March 1948 amidst a decade of experimentation, was completed on 1 November 1956 in a total of seven phases. At this time the role of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and his secretary VP Menon, the princely state and home minister of the Government of India was very Crucial.
It was due to their planning and understanding that the present form of Rajasthan could be established.
First Phase – 18 March 1948
The first Indian government, by merging the native princely states of Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur, and Karauli, in February 1948, used its privileges to form the first union called ‘Matsya Union’. This was the first step towards the creation of Rajasthan.
Among them, Alwar and Bharatpur were accused that their rulers were involved in anti-national activities. For this reason, the first rights to rule him were taken away and an administrator was appointed to oversee the functioning of his princely state. Due to this, the first union was formed in the direction of the unification of Rajasthan(marwadi).
If there were no administrators and the king’s work would have been seen by the king as before, then their merger was impossible because the kings of these states were opposing the merger. The Matsya Union was inaugurated on 18 March 1948 and the then Maharaja Uday Singh of Dholpur was celebrated as its head of state. Its capital was kept at Alwar.
The area of this new state called Matsya Union was about thirty thousand kilometers, the population was about 19 lakhs and the annual income was one crore 83 lakhs. When the Matsya Union was formed, it was written in the merger letter that later this union would be merged into ‘Rajasthan’.
Second phase 25 March 1948
The second phase of the unification of Rajasthan was completed on March 25, 1948, after the union of Rajasthan, consisting of the independent indigenous princely states Kota, Bundi, Jhalawar, Tonk, Dungarpur, Banswara, Pratapgarh, Kishangarh, and Shahpura.
Kota was a major princely state in the merged princely states of Rajasthan, due to which it’s then Maharaja Maharao Bhimsingh was made Rajpramukh. The then Maharao Bahadur Singh of Bundi was the elder brother of Rajpramukh Bhimsingh of Rajasthan Union, hence he was told that he was working in the ‘Rajpramukhita’ of the younger brother. This jealousy culminated in the third phase.
Third phase 18 April 1948
Maharao Bahadur Singh of Bundi did not want him to work under the premiership of his younger brother Maharao Bhimsingh, but it was the compulsion of the then Government of India to make Bhimsingh as the head of the state.
When the matter did not work, Maharao Bahadur Singh of Bundi defeated the princely state of Udaipur and convinced it to merge with the Rajasthan(Marwadi) Union.
The intention behind this was that the Maharana of Udaipur would be made the Rajpramukh due to the large princely state and Maharao Bahadur Singh of Bundi would be saved from the compulsion to be under his younger brother Maharao Bhim Singh and it would avoid being recorded in the pages of history that The elder brother acted under the rule of a younger brother.
On April 18, 1948, in the third phase of the unification of Rajasthan, the princely state of Udaipur was merged into the Union of Rajasthan and renamed as ‘United Rajasthan Union’.In its cabinet headed by Manikya Lal Verma, Maharana Bhupal Singh of Udaipur was made Rajpramukh, Maharao Bhim Singh of Kota was made the senior vice-president. And in this way, the trick of the Maharaja of Bundi was also successful.
The fourth phase, thirty March 1949
After the formation of the united Rajasthan(marwadi) Union before this, the then Government of India focused its attention on the native princely states of Jodhpur, Jaipur, Jaisalmer, and Bikaner and it was also successful and by merging these four princely states, the then Government of India on March 30, 1949, gave the greater Rajasthan(marwadi) Union was formed, which was inaugurated by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the then princely and home minister of the Government of India.
The princely state of Bikaner first merged with India. Today, 30 March is considered to be the day of the establishment of Rajasthan. For this reason, this day is celebrated every year as Rajasthan Day.
Although the merger of four princely states was yet to be merged, this merger is not given much importance, because the princely states that were left had merged in independent India under the name of ‘Matsya Union’ in the first phase itself.
These princely states named Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur, and Karauli had the suzerainty of the Government of India and due to this, their merger in Rajasthan was to be formalized.
Fifth stage 15 May 1949
On May 15, 1949, the Government of India also adopted the formalities of merging Matsya Sandhi in Greater Rajasthan. When the Matsya Union was formed by the Government of India on 18 March 1948, it was written in the merger letter that later this union would be merged into Rajasthan(marwadi). For this reason, also, this phase was considered a formality.
Sixth phase 26 January 1950
On 26 January 1950, the princely state of Sirohi was also merged into Greater Rajasthan(marwadi) on the day the Indian Constitution came into force. This merger is also considered a formality because the Indian government already had control here.
Actually, when the process of unification of Rajasthan(marwadi) was going on, the ruler of the princely state of Sirohi was a minor. For this reason, the functioning of the Sirohi State was being looked after by the Council of the Agency headed by the Empress of Dowagadh which was formed to transfer power to India.
Due to the dispute over Abu Delwada, a part of the princely state of Sirohi, the Abu Delvada tehsil was merged with Bombay and the rest of the princely state in Rajasthan(marwadi) at this stage.
Seventh phase one November 1956
The people of Rajasthan(marwadi) did not want to lose the separate Abu Delwada tehsil running till now, because in this tehsil also came the abupavarvat called the Kashmir of Rajasthan, the land of other Rajasthanis(marwadi), relatives of the surviving Sirohi residents and many even in other states.
Had gone The agitation was being held, the Government of India had to accept the legitimate cause of the movement and the Abu Delwada tehsil was also merged in Rajasthan. In this phase, geographical and social errors were also rectified.
Under this, the Sunel Thapa area, which has been included in Madhya Pradesh, was merged in Rajasthan and Sironj, the sub-district of Jhalawar district was given to Madhya Pradesh.
With this, the construction or integration of Rajasthan(marwadi) was completed today. This was a very important work in the history of Rajasthan(marwadi), on 1 November 1956, the post of Rajpramukh was abolished and the post of Governor was created. Kalal Chopdar was a Muslim.